According to Spencer the ghosts of ancestors were transformed into gods. If you are interested in faith-based theories, we suggest that you do a search on Google with a search string like: origin Christianity. Spell. PreserveArticles.com is an online article publishing site that helps you to submit your knowledge so that it may be preserved for eternity. Freud believes that religion has played a great part in the making of societies. Democracy can be defined as a form of government where all the citizens in the country have equal rights to make a decision in electing their leaders. According to Durkheim, people see religion as contributing to the health and continuation of society in general. Test. Sample Essay on Religion Religion is an aspect of the society’s way of life, implying that factors that affect the society’s way of life will have an impact on religious views. Specifically the psychological built of it. He maintained that religion interacted with other social and cultural aspects (Harrington, 2005, p67). Another function of religion, according to Durkheim, is that religion provides a sense of purpose, meaning and comfort (Macionis and Plummer, 2008, p612). PreserveArticles.com: Preserving Your Articles for Eternity. In early phases of religion we find stones, trees and such objects given extreme reverence and worshipped. Fetishism implies undue emotional attachment to some object. Learn. There have been many issues in the existence of man that have been clouded with many uncertainties and ambiguities, but none of them have raised much controversy and debate than religion. With the gradual development in human thinking there occurred a change in the form of thinking. PLAY. The theological thinking implies belief in another world wherein reside the divine forces which control the events in this world. Elements of a Sociological Theory of Religion Secularization in the World: For and Against Content Guidelines He recognised that religion was a social concept that needed to be explored in and of itself, as a primitive and simple level. Looking for a flexible role? The primitive man and children do not have the scientific outlook. This research aims to explore religious theories by Mircea Eliade and Emile Durkheim, and present a comparison of the views expressed. Although he also thought in evolutionary terms, he was more engaged by systems of meaning, which can be interpreted (Parsons, 1964, xxvii). Write. According to Emile Durkheim religion is one of the ways of accomplishing socialization, that is, integration, accommodation and adjustment of social and personal needs. We're here to answer any questions you have about our services. Ideally, a guide to the nature and history of philosophy of religionwould begin with an analysis or definition of religion. Gilbert Ryle created a method referred to as "thick description." This system of beliefs and practices is indispensible for the identity of a person and his or her sense of belonging to the group. 5. Religion has been highly influential through the course of human history as a source of influence. A fundamental feature of any theory of religion is, or should be, an explanation of the link between the two most observed aspects of religion, the individual aspect and the social aspect. Religious phenomenon. The first and primary stage in theological thinking is that of fetishism. Even in scientific thinking some traces of earlier types are to be usually found. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UKEssays.com. Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ. Sociological Theories. Marx’s views are much more optimistic than Weber’s idealistic pessimistic views. The forth reason why religion must be the basis of morality is that the view of God commands is good and what has been prohibited is evil. Marxism is a conflict theory founded by German Philosopher and Sociologist Karl Marx in the 19th Century. Ideas about the origin and development of religion were initially based on the reports of missionaries and adventures about the nature of religion among the primitives. The last and most developed form of theological thinking is seen manifested in monotheism. In his earlier writing, “The future of an illusion,” he regards religion as an illusion, which is equivalent to atheism. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs. Religion can be recognised in every culture around the world. The Ghost theory explains the origin of Religion in the idea of Ghosts. According to Auguste Comte, human thinking has passed through the following three stages. As regards religion, an ideal type is the distinctive characteristics of a religion. STUDY. If people share a religion, the shared beliefs values and symbols, they are united by these, therefore it religion as a cohesive among these people. According to the father of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud, the origin of religion can be traced back to the problem of child seeking to work out adequate relationships with his parents, particularly his father. Write. Short Essay on the Functional Theory of Religion – Modern sociologists have been making scientific efforts to understand and explain the non- scientific social phenomenon that consist of beliefs and practices. Description According to Durkheim, a religious system is best described as primitive if it exists in a society that lacks the simplest form of organization, and explaining the religious system does not require any further reference from previous forms of religion. He focused on the sociology of religion, such as the relationship between religious ideas and commitments, with other sociological aspects, such as human behaviour in relation to economics Parsons, 1964, p xx). In the early years of present century, the sociologist, the anthropologist and the psychologist greatly widened his horizons and laid the net of his investigation rather wide. Match. This type of thinking of children is also at this level. Thus, religion functions to bind society's members by prompting them to affirm their common values and beliefs on a regular basis. Fundamentally, the task of religion is preserving a normal, positive life (Durkheim, 1976, p29). Sample Essay on Religion. But as R.R. Sociology (Macionis & Plummer, 2008, p611). Though Otto did not call this numinous feeling an emotion, other psychologists have identified religion with the sense of mysterious, the uncanny, and the sacred and termed it as numinous emotion. Both were gripped by the religion and its role in society (Nisbet, 1975). He regards it as one of the ties uniting the community members. In monotheism it is believed that one God is Supreme and that he is responsible for the maintenance of order and system in the world. It includes such facts as celebration, despair, ethical vigour, mystery, retreat, social activism, monastic quietude, contemplation, animal sacrifice, rituals involving pain and terror, images of hope, symbols of fear, the affirmation of life and struggle against death, creative growth, unthinking … If people share a religion, the shared beliefs values and symbols, they are united by these, therefore it religion as a cohesive among these people. Learn. After theological and metaphysical thinking comes the next stage known as scientific or positive stage. If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help! The scientific thinking is thoroughly rational and in it there is no place for any belief on superstition. 3. Auguste Comte is of the opinion that all human thinking before reaching the stage of positivism must have passed through the two earlier stages of theological and metaphysical thinking. According to Durkheim, religion is a social cohesive. Karl Marx and Max Weber were influential sociologists that paved the way for modern... Sociology and Emile Durkheim. Such factors include race, ethnicity, social class, or neighborhoods. Durkheim, along with Marx and Weber, is now seen as an extremely significant classical theorist, and has had an influence across many areas, such as education, religion, and health (Calhoun, 2007, p 133). Therefore, modern scholars have abandoned the approach of tracing the origin of the religion. Durkheim also claims that we organize life into the sacred and the profane, and neither can exist without the other (Durkheim, 1976, p308). Free resources to assist you with your university studies! Max Weber was born in Germany in 1964 to a Protestant family. Thus dreams convinced the primitive man of the existence of spirits and this conviction became, according to Tylor, the basis of religious beliefs. This patriarchal society theory is stoutly opposed by those who consider that the original society was matriarchal and that is why mother-worship is so central to every religion. His work, centred around social change and industrial society, however, he became focused on social and moral order and how it was achieved and maintained in society. He investigates the sources of social phenomena from a historical and cultural perspective and how they influenced the practices within social institutions. Fetishism is a belief that there is some living spirit in the non living objects. Individuals who partake in religious rituals or practices do so not only for spiritual reasons, but also to communicate their association with the religion and its believers as a whole. Marx, Weber, Eliade, Evans Pritchard, Geertz, Livingston. The main importance of this principle is that it provides the basis of sociological thinking. Accordingly, in order to understand and appreciate the phenomenon of religion in its anthropological perspective, we must briefly know the various scientific and empirical approaches to the study of religion which are being made today. Theories of religion can be classified into: Substantive (or essentialist) theories that focus on the contents of religions and the meaning the contents have for people. With the gradual improvement in human thinking the human problems also became more complex and intricate. Religion is used in order to justify these cultural norms, for example, norms surrounding marriage and reproduction (Macionis & Plummer, 2008, p612). It brings forth the idea that society is imbalanced and biased. Durkheim holds a collectivist view of society, exploring it from the perspective that religion has a cohesive effect on people through sharing values, symbols and social norms (Macionis and Plummer, 2008, p611). He believed that religion played a role of stereotyping within society, as it structures and preserves social groups and relationship and provides a social identity for groups. The phenomenon called religion is extremely variegated, complex, intricate and full of paradoxes. He proposes that the dream of an ideal society, an idealistic society that would eliminate evil and sufferings, suggest religion, as this is what religion aims for. The Divine Command Theory is the view on morality that what is right is … Marx endorses Feuerbach's view of religion as alienation and projection, but argues that religion, or alienated consciousness, is only an epiphenomenal reflection of a more basic dehumanizing alienation at the level of social and economic organization. Broadly, these approaches can be divided into two groups: 1. which consider the question of origin of religion to be of paramount importance, and 2. according to which not origin but description is important. These three theories on human development each have their own good points and frauds. He was a moderate left supporter of German nationalism, and helped found the German Democratic Party, as well as playing a part in the Treaty of Versailles and the Weimar Constitution, before he died in 1920 (Dillon, 2010, pp117-118). Psychologist William James refutes the theory that there is in man a specific emotion which may be considered either a cause of religion or religious experience per se. Auguste Comte is regarded to be the father of sociology. This essay on Marx Weber Theories of Religion Sociology was written and submitted by your fellow student. From the facts we generalize and draw conclusions. Religion comes in as a substitute to fill up the vacuum created by displacement of the father. The primary interest of the early pioneers in the fields of social, anthropological and psychological research was to discover the origin of religious ideas in man rather than to describe them. The appearance of conflicting and opposite forces in the world presented problems which could not be successfully tackled by monotheism. This, he says, is how the social institution of religion works, therefore it is society itself that is the source of the action guided by religion (Durkheim, 1976, p418). Thus according to some scholars religion is nothing but a form of fetishism. Religion allows both the expression and control of emotion which enables the bond of individuals to one another and increases the …show more content… Secular-based theories of religion: . As the very term monotheism implies, at this level of human thinking a belief in one God had replaced the earlier belief in many gods. Compare and contrast the theories and methods of Emile Durkheim and … There are several theories revolving around the existence of the universe religion and Christianity. The positive or scientific knowledge is based upon facts, and these facts are gathered by observation and experience. In this essay, I will be explaining Freud’s theories and ideologies on society, culture, and religion. The paper "Karl Marx and Emile Durkheim Theories of Religion" is an outstanding example of an essay on sociology. He examines how different religious traditions and their structures influence society, particularly in relation to the economy and capitalism. Flashcards. Durkheim is popularly known for his structural theory that seeks to explain the history of religion. October 14, 2020 by Essay Writer. “Suicide” discussed diminishing social bonds in modern society, and this influences patterns of suicide. According to Durkheim, religion is a social cohesive. According to Tylor, experiences of death, disease, visions and dreams lead the primitives to think about the … Weber introduced the “ideal type” in order to measure and compare social phenomenon. Democracy and Religion: Modern Theories Essay. The following essay will deal with the science based theories of the origin of religion. In order to resolve this intellectual puzzle or riddle metaphysical thinking was invented. They are, therefore, seen to engage in the worship of trees etc. The citizens of such a region or country have equal participation in electing their leaders. In other words, each of these theories has some value because they are not totally wrong but also are known to receive some criticism as theory is not a science, thus cannot be applied to some cases. According to scholars subscribing to this view all the great symbols of the world’s religions were personifications of natural phenomena; the sun, moon, stars, storms, the seasons of the year. What are the weaknesses of evolutionary theories? Thus it is clear that theological thinking implies a belief in divine and extra-terrestrial forces. The theological thinking was not adequate to tackle these efficiently. Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a university student. One branch of this school maintained that solar myths were most important and that primitive rituals and myths were primarily concerned with man’s relation to the sun. Under metaphysical thinking it is believed that an abstract power or force guides and determines the events in the world. Essay on the theories of origin of marriage. Do you have a 2:1 degree or higher? When discussing the origin of religion, it's important to remember the term 'religion' is broad and far... Max Muller. Wetherefore currently lack a decisive criterion that would enable clearrulings whether some movements should count as religions (e.g.,Scientology or Cargo cults of the Pacific islands). In the last analysis it is a matter of belief or temperament. A religion is a system of beliefs, collective ideas, traditions, and rituals that serve the purpose of gathering, unifying, educating, and enlightening a group of people by influencing and guiding their insights, thoughts, and ways of life. Match. No plagiarism, guaranteed! What are the major contributions of Auguste Comte to Sociology? The above four theories are known as intellectual origin theories, because they assume that the primary source and value of religion is seeking answer to some questions. Instead, they prefer objective or careful observation of what men actually do while engaging themselves in various religious activities. The topic I have chosen to discuss is religion, as theorised by Emile Durkheim and Max Weber. Finally, as signaled in a recent review of 850 research papers, the majority of well-conducted studies suggest that higher levels of religious involvement are positively associated with indicators of psychological well-being (life satisfaction, happiness, positive affect, and higher morale). 2. The symbols of religion appear to their users to be about a realm of supernatural powers and forces. Leading experts engage with contemporary and classical theories as well as non-Western cultural contexts. Durkheim's theory of religion exemplifies how functionalists examine sociological phenomena. Copyright © 2003 - 2020 - UKEssays is a trading name of All Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales. Created by. These conclusions in turn are subjected to verification and once verified these become established laws, which can be relied upon in gathering and classifying the facts. Sociological Theories Perspectives on Religion Christopher J. Reed Sociology 101 Mr. Nguyen March 14, 2011 Sociological Theories Perspectives on Religion When it comes to the social institution of religion, the three major sociological theories differ in a majority of ways. Durkheim and Weber both carried out their work around the turn of the 19th century. PreserveArticles.com is a free service that lets you to preserve your original articles for eternity. The individual aspect is usually referred to as beliefs of the individual 1Department of Economics, LSE. He claimed that religious beliefs were not the individual, but were common beliefs belonging to a group united by these beliefs (Durkheim, 1976, p43). The monotheistic thinking symbolizes the victory of human intellect and reason over non-intellectual and irrational thinking. Copyright. The essay below discusses how factors such as; ethnicity, social class, or neighborhoods impact a person’s religious view and the way the society can improve the religious … Under metaphysical thinking, belief in an abstract transcendental entity or Absolute replaces the belief in personal concrete God. The latter is just one of the several arguments and explanations developed by Durkheim, with the view of determining the truth about humanity's obsession with religion. “For Emile Durkheim, religion and society are inseparable and- to each other- virtually indispensable” (Pals, Eight Theories of Religion). The modern temper of man is such that it cannot remain satisfied with mere guess work; it craves positive knowledge which can be scientifically confirmed. Religious Studies 37, 177-189 Printed in the United Kingdom (C 2001 Cambridge University Press A theory of religion revised JIM STONE Philosophy Depar-tment, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 Abstract: This essay is a revision of my earlier effort to overturn the prevailing Karl Marx viewed religion as a social control used by the bourgeoisie to keep the proletariat to maintain the status quo in a given society. The phenomenon called religion is extremely variegated, complex, intricate and full of paradoxes. It is not there to enhance our knowledge, instead it is there in order to provide a guide for the way we act and live (Durkheim, 1976, p416). But he also admits that religion has profound emotional basis. Therefore, theological thinking is characterized by non scientific or unscientific outlook. VAT Registration No: 842417633. study of religion in The Elementary Forms of Religious Life is widely renowned to be one of the founding theories and definitions of the sociology of religion. The Animism or the Soul theory says the same thing in terms of the idea of Soul. Religion, in Durkheim’s view, is the laws of which a society is built upon, meaning that religion is society. From the Latin religio (respect for what is sacred) and religare (to bind, in the sense of an obligation), the term religion describes various systems of belief and practice that define what people consider to be sacred or spiritual (Fasching and deChant 2001; Durkheim 1915). At this stage man had classified gods as well as natural and human forces. Terms in this set (11) Wink vs. Twitch example. These are: (i) Fetishism, (ii) Polytheism and (iii) Monotheism. For example, if we explain and understand the excess or deficiency of rain due to godly wrath, such a causai explanation would be in terms of theological or fictitious explanation. A personal and concrete God could not account for the simultaneous creation and annihilation. Flashcards. His research was halted by a period of serious depression, however, most of his prominent work was carried out after his breakdown, such as “The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism” (Calhoun, et al., 2007, p206). The child regards his father a figure of absolute power, but as he grows the supremacy of father becomes untenable. Marx, Weber, Eliade, Evans Pritchard, Geertz, Livingston. All the articles you read in this site are contributed by users like you, with a single vision to liberate knowledge. 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